Crystal Structure Of The Androgen Receptor Ligand Binding Domain T877A Mutant In Complex With Hydroxyflutamide

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 1.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.274 
  • R-Value Work: 0.246 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.246 

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Structural Basis for Accommodation of Nonsteroidal Ligands in the Androgen Receptor

Bohl, C.E.Miller, D.D.Chen, J.Bell, C.E.Dalton, J.T.

(2005) J Biol Chem 280: 37747-37754

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M507464200
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    2AX6, 2AX7, 2AX8, 2AX9, 2AXA

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    The mechanism by which the androgen receptor (AR) distinguishes between agonist and antagonist ligands is poorly understood. AR antagonists are currently used to treat prostate cancer. However, mutations commonly develop in patients that convert these compounds to agonists. Recently, our laboratory discovered selective androgen receptor modulators, which structurally resemble the nonsteroidal AR antagonists bicalutamide and hydroxyflutamide but act as agonists for the androgen receptor in a tissue-selective manner. To investigate why subtle structural changes to both the ligand and the receptor (i.e. mutations) result in drastic changes in activity, we studied structure-activity relationships for nonsteroidal AR ligands through crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis, comparing bound conformations of R-bicalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and two previously reported nonsteroidal androgens, S-1 and R-3. These studies provide the first crystallographic evidence of the mechanism by which nonsteroidal ligands interact with the wild type AR. We have shown that changes induced to the positions of Trp-741, Thr-877, and Met-895 allow for ligand accommodation within the AR binding pocket and that a water-mediated hydrogen bond to the backbone oxygen of Leu-873 and the ketone of hydroxyflutamide is present when bound to the T877A AR variant. Additionally, we demonstrated that R-bicalutamide stimulates transcriptional activation in AR harboring the M895T point mutation. As a whole, these studies provide critical new insight for receptor-based drug design of nonsteroidal AR agonists and antagonists.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, 43210, USA.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Androgen receptor256Homo sapiensMutation(s): 1 
Gene Names: Ar
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P10275 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P10275 
Go to UniProtKB:  P10275
PHAROS:  P10275
GTEx:  ENSG00000169083 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP10275
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on HFT

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C11 H11 F3 N2 O4
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
HFT BindingDB:  2AX6 Ki: min: 2, max: 2100 (nM) from 6 assay(s)
IC50: min: 15, max: 3.30e+4 (nM) from 18 assay(s)
PDBBind:  2AX6 Ki: 27 (nM) from 1 assay(s)
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 1.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.274 
  • R-Value Work: 0.246 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.246 
  • Space Group: P 21 21 21
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 54.782α = 90
b = 65.965β = 90
c = 69.628γ = 90
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SCALEPACKdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2005-09-20
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2008-05-01
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.2: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance
  • Version 1.3: 2017-10-11
    Changes: Refinement description
  • Version 1.4: 2021-10-20
    Changes: Database references, Derived calculations
  • Version 1.5: 2023-08-23
    Changes: Data collection, Refinement description