Human Glucokinase in Complex with Novel Amino Thiazole Activator

Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Resolution: 2.60 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.289 
  • R-Value Work: 0.242 

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This is version 1.3 of the entry. See complete history


Identification of a New Class of Glucokinase Activators through Structure-Based Design.

Hinklin, R.J.Boyd, S.A.Chicarelli, M.J.Condroski, K.R.Dewolf, W.E.Lee, P.A.Lee, W.Singh, A.Thomas, L.Voegtli, W.C.Williams, L.Aicher, T.D.

(2013) J Med Chem 56: 7669-7678

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/jm401116k
  • Primary Citation of Related Structures:  
    4MLE, 4MLH

  • PubMed Abstract: 

    Glucose flux through glucokinase (GK) controls insulin release from the pancreas in response to high glucose concentrations. Glucose flux through GK also contributes to reducing hepatic glucose output. Because many individuals with type 2 diabetes appear to have an inadequacy or defect in one or both of these processes, compounds that can activate GK may serve as effective treatments for type 2 diabetes. Herein we report the identification and initial optimization of a novel series of allosteric glucokinase activators (GKAs). We discovered an initial thiazolylamino pyridine-based hit that was optimized using a structure-based design strategy and identified 26 as an early lead. Compound 26 demonstrated a good balance of in vitro potency and enzyme kinetic parameters and demonstrated blood glucose reductions in oral glucose tolerance tests in both C57BL/6J mice and high-fat fed Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

  • Organizational Affiliation

    Array BioPharma , 3200 Walnut Street, Boulder, Colorado 80301, United States.

Find similar proteins by:  (by identity cutoff)  |  3D Structure
Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChains Sequence LengthOrganismDetailsImage
Glucokinase455Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Gene Names: GCK
UniProt & NIH Common Fund Data Resources
Find proteins for P35557 (Homo sapiens)
Explore P35557 
Go to UniProtKB:  P35557
PHAROS:  P35557
GTEx:  ENSG00000106633 
Entity Groups  
Sequence Clusters30% Identity50% Identity70% Identity90% Identity95% Identity100% Identity
UniProt GroupP35557
Sequence Annotations
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 2 Unique
IDChains Name / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
Query on VO1

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
C [auth A]3-(benzyloxy)-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)pyridin-2-amine
C16 H15 N3 O S
Query on GLC

Download Ideal Coordinates CCD File 
B [auth A]alpha-D-glucopyranose
C6 H12 O6
Binding Affinity Annotations 
IDSourceBinding Affinity
VO1 BindingDB:  4MLE EC50: min: 4940, max: 5800 (nM) from 2 assay(s)
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Resolution: 2.60 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.289 
  • R-Value Work: 0.242 
  • Space Group: P 65 2 2
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 79.32α = 90
b = 79.32β = 90
c = 320.21γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
CrystalCleardata collection
MOSFLMdata reduction
SCALAdata scaling

Structure Validation

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Ligand Structure Quality Assessment 

Entry History 

Deposition Data

Revision History  (Full details and data files)

  • Version 1.0: 2013-09-25
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2013-10-23
    Changes: Database references
  • Version 1.2: 2020-07-29
    Type: Remediation
    Reason: Carbohydrate remediation
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Derived calculations, Structure summary
  • Version 1.3: 2024-02-28
    Changes: Data collection, Database references, Structure summary